3.1. Oil Transportation

The core business activity of Transneft is rendering services of oil and petroleum products transportation via trunk pipelines in the Russian Federation and beyond, including transportation outside of Russia on the basis of interstate and intergovernmental agreements.

Transneft and its subsidiaries provide crude oil storage, compoundingCompounding is controlled blending of oil streams in a pipeline. and sales services.

Apart from the core activity of transporting oil across Russia, the Company plans and supervises oil transportation and supply to other countries, ensures acceptance at foreign custody transfer points, collects and compiles data.

As an agent of Russian shippers transporting oil via the territory of Belarus, Ukraine and Kazakhstan, Transneft has signed contracts for oil transportation services with Polotsktranspetrol Druzhba, Gomeltransneft Druzhba, Ukrtransnafta and KazTransOil (TON-2).

Oil turnover, bn tkm
Грузооборот нефти, млрд т.км
Oil turnoverThe actual freight turnover is shown for routing orders accomplished. in accordance with routing orders executed, for each Transneft subsidiary, mln tkm

The total oil accepted into the trunk pipeline system of Transneft amounted to 484.8 million tonnes in 2019, which is 0.9% higher than in 2018 and 1.5% higher than in 2017. Oil acceptance from Russian producers in 2019 increased by 0.7% compared to 2018 and amounted to 465.6 million tonnes. Acceptance of oil from Kazakhstan decreased by 2.5% compared to 2018 and amounted to 16.3 million tonnes, which is 3.6% lower than in 2017. Acceptance of oil from Azerbaijan in 2019 decreased by 36.6% compared to 2018 and amounted to 0.8 million tonnes. In 2019, Transneft ensured oil deliveries to the destination points, as per the contracts signed, in the amount of 485.0 million tonnes, which is 1.1% more than in 2018 and 1.6% more than in 2017.

The 2019 results show an increase in transportation of crude oil due to the general growth of oil volumes fed by producers to the oil trunk pipeline system. At the same time, redirection of oil flows from the domestic market to export was carried out within the framework of oil companies’ requests for oil transportation.

The factors that significantly affected the transportation of oil included an increase in oil deliveries to China via the Skovorodino – Mohe oil pipeline from 16.5 million tonnes in 2017 to 30.0 million tonnes in 2019, the launch of oil deliveries to the RN-Komsomolsk Refinery via the pipeline offshoot from the ESPO PS in the second half of 2019 and the resumption of oil transportation from Turkmenistan through the port of Novorossiysk.

PROBLEMS OF MECHANICS

ENERGY IS THE CAPACITY OF AN OBJECT OR AN OBJECT SYSTEM TO PERFORM A CERTAIN AMOUNT OF WORK

PROBLEM SITUATION: In 2019, Transneft delivered 485 million tonnes of oil to the destinations determined by the contracts concluded.

m = 485,000,000 tonnes (mass of oil delivered)

s = 3×108 m/s (speed of light)

Determine: the energy of the mass of oil delivered in 2019

E — energy of the mass of oil delivered (J)

CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER:


SOLUTION:

We calculate the energy of the mass of oil delivered using Einstein’s equation: E = mc2

We convert tonnes to kilogrammes:

m = 485,000,000 tonnes = 485,000,000,000 kg (mass of oil delivered)

We find the energy of the mass of oil delivered:

E = 485,000,000,000 kg × (3 × 108 m/s)2 = 4.4 × 1028 J


ANSWER: E = 4.4 × 1028 J. The energy of the mass of oil delivered by Transneft to the destinations is 4.4 × 1028 J.

Oil acceptance and delivery indicators for 2017–2019, mln tonnes
Indicators 2017 2018 2019 change,% 2019/2018 change,% 2019/2017
Acceptance into the Transneft system, total: 477.6 480.4 484.8 0.9% 1.5%
oil from Russia 459.2 462.3 465.6 0.7% 1.4%
oil from Kazakhstan 16.9 16.8 16.3 -2.5% -3.6%
oil from Azerbaijan 1.5 1.3 0.8 -36.6% -45.1%
oil from Turkmenistan 0 0 2.1
Oil deliveryIncluding fuel for third-party recipients, total: 477.5 480.0 485.0 1.1% 1.6%
to refineries in Russia 243.7 249.3 245.9 -1.4% 0.9%
Transshipment to the CPC-R system 0.02 0 0.01 -50.0%
Fuel deliveries to third parties 0.18
To the CIS: 18.6 19.0 18.6 -2.1% -0.1%
oil from Russia 18.1 18.0 17.6 -2.4% -2.6%
oil from Kazakhstan 0.5 1.0 1.0 4.2% 85.2%
To markets beyond the CIS: 215.2 211.5 220.3 4.2% 2.4%
oil from Russia 197.2 194.6 202.0 3.8% 2.4%
oil from Kazakhstan 16.4 15.7 15.3 -2.4% -6.8%
oil from Azerbaijan 1.6 1.2 0.9 -27.3% -44.3%
oil from Turkmenistan 0 0 2.0
Oil delivery for export to the CIS countries and to markets beyond the CIS for 2017-2019, mln tonnes
Indicators 2017 2018 2019 change,% 2019/2018 change,% 2019/2017
Export total: 233.8 230.4 238.9 3.7% 2.2%
To the CIS: 18.6 19.0 18.6 -2.1% -0.05%
Refineries in Belarus, total 18.0 18.0 17.6 -2.2% -2.22%
Naftan 8.3 8.3 8.1 -1.8% -1.82%
The Mozyr Refinery 9.8 9.8 9.5 -2.6% -2.6%
Refineries in Uzbekistan, total 0.1 0.0 0.0 -100.0% -100.0%
Refineries in Kazakhstan, total 0.5 1.0 1.0 4.2% 85.2%
POCR, LLP 0.5 1.0 1.0 4.2% 85.2%
To markets beyond the CIS: 215.2 211.5 220.3 4.1% 2.4%
The Sheskharis Oil Depot 30.7 27.6 31.0 12.1% 1.1%
The Primorsk SSOP 44.0 38.5 47.5 23.3% 7.9%
The Kozmino SSOP 31.71 30.39 33.19 9.2% 4.7%
The Ust-Luga SSOP 32.7 27.8 26.4 -5.0% -19.3%
Adamova Zastava (Germany) 19.90 20.63 16.06 -22.2% -19.3%
Adamova Zastava (Poland) 15.64 14.92 13.06 -12.5% -16.5%
Budkovce (the Czech Republic) 4.0 4.0 3.81 -4.8% -5.7%
Budkovce (Slovakia) 5.5 5.2 5.0 -4.0% -9.1%
Fenyeslitke (Hungary) 4.4 4.1 4.3 4.6% -1.8%
China 10.0 10.0 10.0 0.0% 0.0%
The Russia – China border (the Amur River, the People's Republic of China) 16.5 28.3 30.0 6.0% 81.8%
Shipment via railway loading racks 0.2 0.0 0.0 -100.0%

Exports to CIS countries and to markets beyond the CIS in 2019 increased by 3.7% compared to 2018 and by 2.2% compared to 2017, and amounted to 238.9 million tonnes.

Oil delivery to refineries located in Russia amounted to 245.9 million tonnes, a 1.4% decrease compared to 2018 and a 0.9% decrease compared to 2017.

PROBLEMS OF MECHANICS

ENERGY IS THE CAPACITY OF AN OBJECT OR AN OBJECT SYSTEM TO PERFORM A CERTAIN AMOUNT OF WORK

PROBLEM SITUATION: In 2019, 238.9 million tonnes of oil were exported through Transneft’s oil trunk pipelines. The average oil flow speed in a trunk pipeline is 10 km/h.

m = 238,900,000 tonnes (mass of oil for export)

v = 10 km/h = 2.8 m/s (average oil flow speed)

Determine: the kinetic energy possessed by the specified volume of transported crude.

E — kinetic energy (J)

CHOOSE THE CORRECT ANSWER:


SOLUTION:

We calculate the kinetic energy using the formula:

Е = (m × v2)/2

We convert tonnes to kilogrammes:

m = 238,900,000 tonnes = 238,900,000,000 kg (mass of oil for export)

We find the kinetic energy:

E = (238,900,000,000 kg × 2.8 m/s2)/2 = 936,488,000,000 J = 936,488 mJ


ANSWER: Е = 936,488 mJ. The kinetic energy of oil for export is 936,488 mJ.

Target and actual indicators for oil transportation services rendered in 2019
Indicators (target) 2019 (actual) 2019 deviation, +/- execution, %
Total oil transportation volume, million tonnes: 483.1 485.0 0.4 100%
Domestic market: 254.8 246.1 -3.4 97%
to refineries in Russia 254.7 245.9 -3.4 97%
transshipment to the CPC-R system 0.1 0.0 -86.4 14%
other deliveries (fuel deliveries to third parties) 0.2
Export 228.3 238.9 4.6 105%
to the CIS countries 19.0 18.6 -2.1 98%
to markets beyond the CIS 209.3 220.3 5.2 105%
Oil turnover, bn tkm 1,237.9 1,247.6 0.8 101%